Wizpals Education provides tuition in English, Maths, Science and General Paper.
The main exams for which we prepare students for would be the GCE O Level exams, GCE
A Level exams, N Level exams and PSLE.
We also prepare students for the international exams and IP exams.
SUMMARY WRITING TIPS
How to tackle a summary question
Understanding and breaking down the words.
Understanding and breaking down the meanings of words and phrases is instrumental in understanding and tackling the entire passage. There will always be certain words or phrases which the student may have never come across before. If that is the case, there has to be a careful understanding of the general intention of the author and the main topic point in order to guess the meaning correctly. A certain amount of guess work is necessary in order to tackle the summary question properly. An understanding must be there or the summary will be slipshod if all the necessary points do not appear in the final answer.
1st Mini Example – Practice for correct interpretation of points
The notorious bandit had controlled the outlying posts to the extent that all communication with the renowned city within fifty kilometers of it had come to a virtual standstill. There had been no news from the emperor and the bandits had had a field day in razing through farmlands of recalcitrant farmers who refused to bow to their whims despite the obvious lack of support. They had demanded fifty percent of the harvest and that each land owner should dispense with five
cows and goats each as part of Farein Aku’s share of his spoils. In this case, a summary of this paragraph must include a paraphrasing of all the underlined words. It would be useful to highlight these key words as they are the relevant points for the summary question. These are the more difficult parts of the paragraph and they are especially relevant to the story in the context. For instance, the word “ dispense” has several meanings. One would be to deal out as in the case of a drink dispensing machine which is NOT the meaning used here. The meaning here would be to give up or yield. The answer is closely aligned to the farmers’ plight as they are being forced
to give up their cows and goats to the bandit leader. Secondly understanding of the actions mentioned here and who performs them is essential especially if there are several subjects involved.
There had been no news from the emperor and the bandits had had a field day in razing through farmlands of recalcitrant farmers who refused to bow to their whims despite the obvious lack of support. In the sentence above it is obvious that both the emperor and the bandits are
involved. The farmer are also mentioned. So the question of who refused to “bow to their whims” might crop up causing some confusion. One has to read the sentence through carefully to realize that that it would be the farmers. Some might have misinterpreted it to be the emperor who is
mentioned first in the sentence. The last part of this sentence mentions “despite the obvious lack of support.” The lack of support from whom has to be determined. Secondly what the
lack of support could mean for the farmers. The lack of support would be from the emperor as he is the only one in a position to send support. Though only the word emperor has been mentioned
it can be understood that the virtual standstill in communication might have something to do with the lack of help.
Secondly the lack of support would mean that the plight of the farmers would be very bad. They would be totally at the mercy of the bandits who are obviously more powerful. The bandits ‘razing through’ the area denotes their strength, destruction to the properties and control of the place. So an understanding would mean that the phrase can be re-written with these ideas in mind. A general understanding of the main intent in the passage should be seen in the summary answer. “Field day” could have other meanings but it refers to the bandits having a whale of a time or benefiting themselves heartily while the people suffered. This meaning has to be imparted in the summary. Also ‘recalcitrant farmers’ denotes the obstinacy of the farmers as they had refused to change despite the obvious show of strength by the bandits. The phrase can be re-written as unyielding farmers or unrelenting farmers. Once an understanding has been reached there will be various correct interpretations available. “Share of his spoils” is a phrase which refers to the bandit leader, Farein Aku’s need to rob the people as he feels that it is his due. Spoils refers to
plundering or taking things of value by force. The word ‘share’ reveals his intention as it is deemed as something which is his right. Once the passage has been analysed in this manner the answer will be thorough and precise. Also the points will be well covered.
2nd Mini Example – Practice for breaking down words
Understanding and breaking down
The night wore on in endless surprises. The troop had already dwindled down to only five after their initial twenty. There had been no one left to man the extra ammunition and Kaze had had to load it onto his cart and pulled it along, donkey style. The last outbreak of fire had cost them a plenty and they had lost their best marksman, Sandler. He had been the only one who had managed to wrest them free from the hell-like prisoner of war camp at Lesotho. It had been the most grotesque of all their experiences and none felt that they would survive the present ordeal to tell their tale.
With Ken manning the rapid fire equipment and Bruno being in charge of the ambushes they felt frighteningly alone in the maze of African jungles seething with wide-eyed panthers ready to pounce on them stealthily with the practiced craft of their military upbringing. Ken’s hair on the back of his neck prickled once again. He dreaded telling the others that it was just a sensation as he could not prove it but he had never been wrong in all of his twenty five years. The sensation had begun five hours ago and he felt almost dead sure that they were being followed. They Python man grinned quietly to himself but it was not really a grin. It was more of a menacing scowl than a grin but in the darkness it appeared ironically enough, almost amiable. He had delivered the grenades in deadly accuracy and would writhe like a snake to place the grenades frighteningly close to his adversaries. The last was the oldest. He was Nik and he was nearly fifty but his spry frame belied his years. He had taken over as a sort of pseudo leader after Sandler devising plans to break away to the safety of the airstrip near the bay. The following phrases have to be given meanings according to the intention in the context. A thorough understanding of the meaning will help in forming a well edited summary.
Analyse the following phrases within the context.
1. endless surprises
It means to have been attacked unexpectedly and continuously.
2. dwindled down
It means to have decreased slowly.
3. donkey style
It refers to pulling the burden in a slow and difficult way.
4. the only one.
It refers to the indispensability of Sandler as he had been in a leadership
position and had died suddenly.
5. hell-like prisoner of war camp
It means a prison for captives in which surviving is torturous in the
6. none felt that they would survive the present ordeal to tell their tale.
Not one of them felt that they would be able to get out of their situation
alive and tell anyone about their painful experiences in the prison.
7. wide-eyed panthers
They are the enemies who are seen as having the same predator-like
quality of the panthers in attacking suddenly and fiercely.
8. the practiced craft of their military upbringing.
It refers to having been trained in a military atmosphere and being skilled
in its tactics.
9. hair on the back of his neck prickled once again.
It refers to having an instinct for knowing someone was behind him
which acts as a warning.
10. he had never been wrong.
He had always felt the instinct and in each case he had been followed.
11. it was not really a grin
It was more of a scowl or a threatening look.
12. ironically enough, almost amiable
He seemed to look friendly but it was the exact opposite of his intentions
which were fierce.
13. a sort of pseudo leader
He was not really a leader but a substitute leader as Sandler had died.
3rd Mini Example – Practice for Arrangement of major points
The process of making cheese required a lot of patience. Firstly the Tibetan women had to leave the milk from the cows in huge metal buckets which they left to thicken. The thickening process involved leaving it in a cool place behind the sheds where the milk gradually thickened at the top called the cream. This then was used for children’s food which being consumed usually at morning time meant that the plentiful remainder could be used to be separated into thicker and thinner portions in turn which had plentiful use in the hot weather as a nutritious snack for everyone. The thicker portion was used for making cheese while the thinner portion went
through another sieving process where thin muslin cloth was used to separate it until a runny mixture was achieved called whey. The cream which was not consumed was kept aside for thickening and they had to prevent it from turning bad by using wooden poles at the side of the drum it was kept in to keep shaking it vigorously. This had to be done for prolonged periods of time to keep the mixture thick throughout so that the mix in the end was even causing the smooth flow to thicken gradually resulting in the creamy texture which is very different from the one in the supermarket that consumers buy. This was the most laborious process of all as it was done manually as was everything but it required constant exertion by the women who
generally took turns.
This passage has several details about the cheese making process. The sentences are long and have sub clauses which deal with 2 or 3 points. The analysis of these points have to be accurate in order to tackle the summary question properly.
The exercise below will help in obtaining a clearer analysis.
1. This then was used for children’s food which being consumed usually at morning time meant that the plentiful remainder could be used to be separated into thicker and thinner portions in turn of which the former was used for long-term consumption while the latter was used for had plentiful use in the hot weather as a nutritious snack for everyone.
What do the first “which” and the second “which” refer to?
The first “which” refers to the cream and the second “which” has two uses. The first of these was to be used for long-term food and the second was as a snack.
2. This had to be done for prolonged periods of time to keep the mixture thick throughout so that the mix in the end was even causing the smooth flow to thicken gradually resulting in the creamy texture which is very different from the one in the supermarket that consumers buy.
What do the “mix” and “the one” refer to respectively? Explain the difference.
The mix refers to the mixture which was done to make cheese. The one refers to the cheese found in supermarkets. The difference is that the mix is done manually by Tibetan women
and the one is the processed machine made cheese found in supermarkets. The fact that the processed cheese is machine made is inferential but has to be used in order to explain the difference properly.
4th Mini Example - PRACTICE for analysing suggestions in the passage
There was not a whisper to be heard and only the rusty swing in the deserted playground creaked monstrously like something out of a horror movie. Even the wind seemed to have hushed up as if in expectancy of the lurid scene which was to be played out before their eyes. Slowly the main gate swung open. Someone strode in, walking with a swinging gait which they had been
expecting for a while. He was tall, had dirty blonde hair which reached down to his shoulders and
held a short stick in his hand. He had a small black case in the other hand which looked like a violin case. He walked slowly, circling the deserted playground and looking around to see if anyone was behind the bushes. When he had finished with that, he turned to the building. All the windows stared back blankly at him with the printed animal print curtains waving hesitantly.
He carefully stepped on the wooden step leading to the front door. If only he had looked down he would have seen dozens of eyes staring riveted to his bootcut Levis legs as he swung his legs up. They were terrified eyes born into a world of concealed sadism. As the blonde man reached the uppermost step a crowbar shot out from the gap under the step towards his foot. He never made it to the door.
Answer the following questions
1. What evidence is there in the first paragraph to support the phrase that it was “like something out of a horror movie?”
The evidence is in the quietness which seems to be a prelude for
something terrible which is about to happen. The words, “not a
whisper” , the rusty swing” creaking and the wind being hushed all
2. What do the stick and violin case insinuate about the man?
The stick indicates that he could be using it as a weapon or to defend. The
violin case could contain a violin or it may have something far more
dangerous. The words it looked like a violin case clearly indicate something
far more sinister.
3. What is suggested about the curtains waving hesitantly?
It suggests that there is something mysterious which is in the house or
that there is a mystery which is about to unravel.
4. What does born into “a world of concealed sadism” suggest about the
owners of the eyes?
It suggests that the world they had been born in was a painful one and that
they had been subjected to miserable conditions.
Mini Example Five - PRACTICE for analyzing context meanings
The chef triumphantly displayed his carefully diced apples, shallots and peppers to the gaping audience. He had sliced them in a jiffy even before they had the chance to know what was going on. He was the chef expert from Hong Kong, the marvel and current darling of the New Yorkers who were agog over anything which was new and different. The Italian cooks with their pasta sauces had to stand aside as chef Chou had taken the cookery channels by storm. Almost everyone was tuning in to watch chef Chou’s latest culinary concoction, how he made a marvel out of something as simple as apple pie which he had regaled the audiences with time and again.
His best dishes were the easy-to- prepare wholesome Chinese dishes with soy sauce, tofu, ginger and shredded chicken or duck. No one could turn it down no matter how staunchly they had been dieting. It was a dieter’s nightmare and a hostess’s dream.
Explain the meanings of the following words and expressions
1. Gaping audience
The audience was open mouthed due to the chef’s speedy way of dicing.
2. In a jiffy
To do very quickly
3. Had to stand aside
It means to give way to someone else who was more important than themselves.
4. Culinary concoction
It is a new dish which was invented by the chef.
6. Dieter’s nightmare
It would be difficult for a dieter to control herself as the food was too tempting so the dieting would not work.
7. Hostess’s dream
A hostess of a dinner would be glad to have this chef’s recipe as it was a favourite with everyone.
1st Full Passage Practice
Understanding the Passage
The sea shone bleakly under the waning moon. The waves had acquired a strange life in them at night with the waves curling up towards Mario in the depths of black. The night wore on relentlessly and Mario stood at the deck hypnotized by the black waves which seemed to be reading his mind waiting for that one moment of weakness to enter the ship and control it. Mario
could not shake off this thought from his mind. Almost everyone on board were suffering from the delirium caused by the exotic fever which some said was the curse of those who plundered for gold.
As though the Spanish flu was not bad enough, thought Mario miserably. This new fever caused them to collapse without any warning and Mario had already lost ten of his crew who had taken to their bunks in a shivering sweaty mess. The crew had been seriously handicapped and with only six men Mario had been floundering when they had reached the dangerous crossroads of the ocean where the Pacific merged into the Atlantic. He felt the warmth of the Pacific tail off as the blustery northern winds started to possess their course. Their sails had withstood the tremendous onslaught of the Atlantic winds as it buffeted and fought with the gales which forced its way down from the pole. The crew had breathed in relief as the sightings of sharks grew less but the temperature seemed to have taken a toll on their spirits.
Mario had felt a curious sunken feeling descend on the ship which was returning home with the spoils of their plunder to Spain. His face creased into a greedy, withered look of unspeakable joy which spoke fathoms of his lust for gold. Suddenly the joy became replaced with a hunted look as if he was being possessed by something diabolical. Mario shrugged it off quickly, aware that the feeling could grow rendering him incapable of manning the crew if he gave way to despondency.
He had felt his legs turning to jelly a few times as they had left the warmer currents and knew that the worst of the exotic flu which they seemed to have caught from the Americas was not over. The ‘thing’ had followed them from their victorious moments and had dogged them till their breath had almost left their lungs. For a moment the vision of the hundreds of villagers lying inert in the land in which they had lived so innocently crossed his mind. There had been hundreds who had succumbed to the Spanish flu which they had released to them when they had arrived with their words of friendship and praise of their Queen.
The natives had treated them hospitably with their palm wine, milk coconut candies and rice but had found themselves slowly weakening as the Spanish flu raged and did its work. Mario and his men had the medicine to combat it and so had remained on board waiting to rake in the gold which had been their quest. As they had returned home in triumph Mario had felt that they had been accompanied by an unknown visitor who skulked in their shadows when all had fallen asleep. Mario shut his eyes and wiped off the sweat which rolled down his face, a curious sight in the midst of the freezing Atlantic weather.
The passage above is entirely in narrative and it has certain parts which try to explain the mystery of what is happening on board. Some of the puzzle is unravelled but a careful reading which make it very clear.
Most narratives have unspoken bits about previous events and the possible outcome based on them. An understanding of the passage can been broken down in the Main Topic points of each paragraph.
Main Topic Points
The first paragraph discusses the weakened state of the ship’s crew with Mario having a deep fear of their fate. This is seen from the words “everyone on board were suffering from the delirium caused by the exotic fever.” Mario’s deep fear of their fate is slightly more complicated. It is seen
in phrases throughout the paragraph. Mario being “hypnotized” by the black waves…..
“Mario could not shake off this thought…”
And the fact that Mario was standing at the deck watching the black waves curling up towards him which had a life of its own is itself indicative of his helplessness. All these signal Mario’s fear.
This paragraph discusses the crew’s decrease in number and the effect of having entered the Atlantic Ocean. The words “new fever had caused them to collapse without any warning” And “the crew had been seriously handicapped” indicate the advanced suffering of the crew in detail. The effect of their position in having crossed over into the Atlantic is seen in “Mario had been floundering when they had reached the dangerous crossroads of the ocean where the Pacific merged into the Atlantic.” The other sentence which reinforces this effect is “the tremendous
onslaught of the Atlantic winds”, “forced its way down from the pole.” The phrase “taken a toll on their spirits” is also a strong indication of how they felt cheerless after having reached the crossroads which signal that great doom lies ahead.
The main point is that Mario is joyful at having plundered gold and is at the same time haunted by guilt. The feature of this paragraph is to signal the fact that Mario and his crew had actually taken gold from another place by force as can be seen from “plunder” and that just as he is joyful at acquiring his gold he is also filled with a sense of doom that he will be punished for this.
The main topic point is that Mario and his crew had released the Spanish flu amongst the natives by pretending friendship. He remembers the image of the natives who had died due to their
actions and feels a “thing”, a result of his guilt, which has followed them.
The Spanish flu being released amongst the natives and their sickness is mentioned. The phrases “the vision of the hundreds of villagers lying inert” and “hundreds who had succumbed to the
Spanish flu which they had released to them” indicate how the crew had conducted themselves in order to sate their greed for gold. Mario’s guilt is seen in the phrase “the ‘thing’ had followed them.”
There are two points here:
The first is: The way the natives had treated the Spaniards, the crew and how the Spaniards had killed them instead to return in triumph with the gold.
The second is:
There was a strange fever which had affected them after they had left the natives.
This can be seen from “an unknown visitor who skulked in their shadows when all had fallen asleep” and “Mario…..wiped off the sweat……a curious sight in the midst of the
freezing Atlantic weather.” The irony is seen as Mario is sweating in the freezing weather. This is
obviously a sign of Mario having contracted the strange fever and his eventual doom.
Give an account of the reasons for Mario and his ship mates’ weakened position. The answer should be from the second paragraph till the end.
“The fever, which some said was a curse, had affected everyone.”
2nd Full Comprehension Passage
The gladiators eyed each other warily their eyes glazed over with endless bouts of fighting lasting for days on end. The spectators had filled the Colesseum to its full capacity. The gladiators could not see them. The world was a blur to them and humanity lay dead in each of his breast. The will to live had been replaced by a need to prolong each second of life as much as possible. Life had never seemed so sweet before with all of its brutality and sadistic hissing from the savages at the benches.
The Romans had long been used to the tradition of survival of the fittest. The gladiators were worth little more than beasts to them as they hailed from another civilization of people different from their own. They felt a distancing from them in their elevated perches at the grandstand seats. The wives of the Roman senators and the patricians stared down their long Roman noses at the dishevelled heap of barely recognizable humanity at the pit.
The gladiators were soaked in their own sweat and their hair had dried and been soaked so often in the bouts of the last week that it had acquired a straggly, unkempt look so different from the elegant short coifs worn by the Roman males. The fight started and the gladiators tensed their broad muscles. Their biceps rippled in the sunlight as they moved warily around the rink licking the stray sweat which came into contact with their mouths.
Hiseus and Romus faced each other with the utmost reluctance. They could have been twins if not for the colour of their eyes. Romus had dark eyes which were typical of most people in that region. He was originally from Istanbul and his bearing was taller than most. His skin was light golden brown and his sounded thick and guttural when he was driven beyond his powers during the fights.
Hiseus was slightly lighter in colour with the exact same built but his eyes were almost opaque blue. They were reminiscent of the Scandinavians who had icy green or blue eyes. But the opaque blue eyes would blaze with a fierceness when he was in the midst of a duel but words hardly ever escaped from his lips. He was an ice giant. Both men moved around the rink as they surveyed each other warily. They knew that they could not keep the barbarous hordes at bay much longer. Romus was mentally tired though he knew that his body could probably take a few more knocks. His thoughts wandered momentarily to the region where he knew his wife and son would be waiting for him once he received the deadly blow. His eyelids flickered for a brief second before he saw Hiseus plunging his arm at his face. He dodged instinctively and wished that his survival instincts were not that strong.
The crowd roared in sadistic ecstasy and they swayed to their feet with the impunity of only those who held the power of life in their hands. As Romus ducked he could have sworn that Hiseus did it deliberately so that he could survive a blow which would have surely meant death. Romus hardly flinched but an idea fermented in his head as he noticed that Hiseus did not seem to shield himself adequately enough. As Romus’s arm plunged once again towards his forehead just a fraction off course, Hiseus moved his head quickly towards the blow and fell to the ground with a gigantic cry and shudder which brought every spectator to his feet. His body lay inert as the
entire stadium resounded with joy at Hiseus’s victory. As Hiseus held his hands high above his head he strode around stopping in front of Romus’s body just to spit on him. Then he carried him carelessly with one hand which brought on another sadistic, frenzied cry of joy from the people.
He dumped Romus’s body unceremoniously on a wagon which looked like a rubbish cart and proceeded to mock it with violent thrusts which tossed the body like a rag doll. As the crowd became content with the ultimate sense of degradation which could be inflicted on a gladiator, he walked away to claim his prize.That night when the entire stadium was deserted, Romus got up
warily from his wagon, thankful that no one had claimed his ‘body.’ He looked up towards the dungeon where Hiseus was supposed to be that night. He uttered a prayer of thankfulness for his friend had given him a new lease of life and soon melted away into the darkness.
This passage is mainly narrative and concentrates on unfolding the surprising turn of events at the end. How had the gladiators managed to satisfy the expectations of the crowd inspite of the fact that neither one of them had died?
Give an account of how the gladiators had fought dexterously while pretending to feign death at the end.
Your answer should be from the second paragraph till the end.
Begin with: “The Romans were only concerned with the gladiators fighting till death.”
3rd Full Comprehension Passage
It would be difficult to imagine that the mighty heavens was borne aloft only because the stoic and long-suffering Atlas was bearing it on his shoulders. According to Greek mythology Atlas was actually a Titan who led a rebellion against Zeus the ruler of the heavens. Although there were at least 20 other gods and titans who were responsible Atlas was singled out by Zeus to hold up the
heavens as a punishment for all eternity. In the Homeric poems, Atlas is described as having total knowledge of the depth of all the seas and is in charge of holding the long columns which separate earth from heaven. The Homeric expression “amphis echousi” mean the columns which keep asunder heave and earth. Atlas’s task was no mean one and one which he exercised continually inducing moans of pain from him. But the task of holding the heavens could only be borne by a super-human being. Atlas though a titan was commonly mistaken for a god through the monumental strength he exercised.
Another role which Atlas was prescribed with was to be in charge of the heavenly constellations in their orbits. The common misconception was that of Atlas overseeing earth and heaven through his control of the constellations. Greek mythology denotes otherwise. Atlas was characterized for his strength and courage. His rash temper and headstrong tendencies marked his downfall. He
led the Titans in a conquest against Zeus. A long battle ensued at the end of which Zeus won and prescribed the torturous punishment of bearing heaven on his back with his hands to Atlas. Another theory supporting this idea was the connection between heaven and earth was cloudy and that it needed Atlas to hold it together as he is commonly represented in paintings and sculptures in standing on earth whilst holding heaven on his back. In fact in bearing heaven he
turns it on the axis which cause the stars to revolve. Such is the magnitude of this myth that Atlas is typified with the characteristics of infinite strength, endurance and stamina. Another myth reveals that Mount Atlas in Africa was actually Atlas himself. In the ancient tale Perseus, a Greek hero sets out to kill the cursed Medusa who was transformed into a half reptilian creature due to the wrath of Venus. Medusa herself had once been a beautiful woman but as Greek goddesses and gods possessed an anger as was almost insurmountable as their powers, Venus became outraged and jealous. From then on Medusa was reduced to living a cursed existence in a subterranean cave. Her gaze was enough to turn anyone to stone and her blood was so full of gall and poison that it could kill. Perseus needed Medusa’s head for even in death the power entomb anyone in stone prevailed.
On his return trip from having vanquished the cursed Medusa, Perseus asks Atlas’s permission to stay. Atlas refuses to allow him to stay as he had been forewarned that the son of Zeus would try to enter his domain and seal his doom. Unfortunately his refusal seals his doom and Perseus seeks revenge by exposing Atlas to Medusa’s head which he had kept in his care. Atlas’s beard
becomes a straggly, busy growth and his head grows upwards in a narrow peak and he turns to stone. Another myth relates to Hercules who wanted to get the golden apples belonging to Atlas’s daughter, Hesperides. Atlas was bearing the burden on his back and when Hercules approaches him for help. Hercules agrees to bear the burden while Atlas got the golden apples. When Atlas returns after a few days he is reluctant to give up his newfound freedom and tries to trick Hercules by saying that the golden apples could only be given to the father of Hesperides. Hercules knew that he was being tricked and asks Atlas to hold the burden for a while till he got a comfortable cushion on his shoulders to bear the burden with. Unfortunately Atlas falls for this trick and is left holding the burden forever while Hercules escapes with the golden apples.
The various myths surrounding Atlas testify to one underlying fact and that is, Atlas’s strength. His strength and capacity for enduring hardship is unmatched by none except for Hercules. To this day the maps of the world are called atlas after this Greek titan and when one speaks of impossible strength and physical capability the name Atlas always comes to mind.
How do the various myths define Atlas’s physical powers and endurance?
THE LOWER SECONDARY OUTLINE
The lower secondary summary practices will be aimed at helping the student to understand the summary question. Analysis of the questions would be crucial.
The people in the valley of the Mekong encountered difficulties which were seen only when the weather changed. How did this have an effect on the places they had to dwell at and the
lives of the families? This question is spread over a certain area. The student has to know the perimeter in the passage within which to base the answer on. For instance, the question is actually divided into two parts.
The first part mentions the “difficulties” in relation to “the weather.” The second part mentions the way they had to change their dwelling places and how the lives of families were affected. So the points selected should cover all of these. There will be a selection of summary questions with model answer formats in point form such as seen above. This chapter will be called “ Analysing the question.”
Secondly, for the lower secondary, there will be a chapter on how not to over edit as students are fond of cutting down too many points to accommodate the word count.
There will be a selection of paragraphs and editing of these. These will be in mini practice form.
Thirdly, there will be a chapter on word substitution. Tips on how to avoid “lifting” and not using direct speech if any is present. Also how to present data as in numerals, dates and other statistic according to the level of importance. Again there will be mini practices on these.
UPPER SECONDARY OUTLINE
The main purpose for the upper secondary is to initiate the student into understanding the author’s intention and ideas which are sometimes presented concurrently in the passages.
The level of difficulty of the passages would have increased and there will be more topics based on general knowledge type of passages. Assimilation of data would be crucial.
The first chapter would deal with understanding the author’s involvement, if any, in the passage.
The author’s views, if any.
How the author projects his/her view which is usually indirectly seen. There will be some practices on this.
The second chapter will deal with grouping data according to the main points and further sub-division of secondary points. Sometimes a paragraph could have 2 main points. In some cases a paragraph could be continuing the thread of discussion from the previous paragraph. Knowing this will help in breaking down the points and substituting them. There will be several practices on this with different styles of writing.
This will be the main difference.
For the rest, it will remain the same as paraphrasing and keeping to the word count concerns both lower and upper levels.
Lower Secondary Outline
Analysing the question
This will be followed by 6 mini examples. Following this will be about 4-5 mini practices for the student to try.
Features of editing
How to edit.
What to do and what not to do.
Some common misconceptions will be explored. Some mini examples will follow. About 6.
This will be followed by mini practices. Features of word substitution and selection of data
The practices will feature tips on how to avoid lifting. Smart ways of paraphrasing will be discussed and shown.
How to change paragraphs with conversation and how to select data which is relevant.
There will be example practices followed by practices for students. The second half of the book will feature on:
Understanding the Passage – mini egs
Paraphrasing – mini egs
How to write a concise summary – full length examples.
Upper Secondary Outline
Understanding the author’s intention
If it is narrative, then the standpoint of the author. If it is discussive then how to read between the lines to understand the author’s point. There will be some example practices followed by some practices for the students to try out.
How to establish the Main Topic Point and the secondary
Understanding that the main point is usually linked to a secondary or
to some secondary points. Some practices based on identifying this with some exercises for
students to try will follow.
How the points are linked
How to explore the inter-relationship of ideas.
Understanding the link and the main features of these.
Some practices based on identifying this with some exercises for students to try will follow.
The second half of the book will feature on:
Understanding the Passage – mini egs
Paraphrasing – mini egs
How to write a concise summary – full length examples.